Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, and Chemistry
University of California Riverside, USA
Fellow—Materials Research Society (MRS)
Member—National Academy of Inventors (NAI)
Member—American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Associate Editor—Energy Storage, WILEY
Prospects in Global Vehicle Electrification Over the Next Decade
Policy makers worldwide are under pressure for achieving decarbonization towards net zero emissions by the year 2050, and maintain a global average temperature increase below 1.5C per the special report by the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Decarbonization of the global electricity sector can be achieved via deploying of a variety of technologies, ranging from renewable power sources like wind, geothermal and solar to nuclear power, and includes advances in demand response and stationary energy storage. For global vehicle electrification, two major options for decarbonized transportation include battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). With the recent advancements in Li-ion battery (LIB) technologies, BEVs are projected to provide a substantial demand for electricity, enabled by upcoming key technologies for higher-energy and longer-life LIBs. In addition, supercapacitors can help acceleration-boosting and stabilizing electrical system output in BEVs, as well as energy capture from regenerative braking. Furthermore, the global electric car stock will expand to almost 350 million vehicles by 2030, which require battery manufacturers and mineral suppliers to reduce the risks of supply bottlenecks and prevent higher prices.
In my presentation, I will describe the current state of the art and upcoming innovative approaches for the next decade on the design and synthesis of nanostructured energy-storage materials towards enhanced reversible capacity; superior rate performance and cycling stability; superior gravimetric capacitance; and enhanced energy and power densities. Integration of nanostructured pseudocapacitive metal oxides to nano-architectured carbon templates and MXene class materials can provide superior electrochemical performance in supercapacitor applications. Single and multilayer stacked carbonaceous nano-architectures and MXene’s can be employed in LIBs and could also be useful for future applications in hydrogen storage for FCEVs. Next, I will describe most recent efforts for upcycling of polyethylene terephthalate waste and glass waste into active energy storage materials would constitute scalable approaches for deep decarbonization and the means for achieving a circular economy. Waste glass utilization could offer an environmentally-benign and energy-saving route to prepare silicon enriched anodes to boost BEV battery capacity. Finally, I will describe near future approaches for utilizing sulfur-based cathodes, which could offer further boost of battery capacity and enhance BEV performance.